One of the world's main environmental events, COP 27 is the twenty-seventh edition of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This time, the meeting took place in the city of Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
The first session (1995, in Berlin) already had the aim of establishing more sustainable targets in the face of the greenhouse effect. Since then, the COP has been held annually to discuss climate change and possibilities for cooperation to try to alleviate the resulting problems.
As this is a very important topic for Abundance Brasil, we've gathered the main highlights here to summarize what happened at COP 27. Check it out!
The focus remains the same
Containing the effects of climate change continues to be a major concern and a central point of debate, given the targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The subject has been addressed throughout previous editions and the challenge is to ensure that the commitments are actually met.
In 2021, COP 26 resulted in a document called Implementation of the Glasgow Climate Pact, which provided for a review of carbon reduction targets by 2030 by all the countries that had signed. The use of fossil fuels is still a huge burden and, despite the consensus on climate urgency, few decisions have been taken.
Losses and damages
The topic of "Loss and Damage" was of great importance in this edition. Some of the most vulnerable countries are asking for compensation for the damage caused by climate effects, such as rising sea levels in their territories, as well as intense rains and droughts. Although they don't emit much carbon, they suffer from this type of problem and demand international aid.
There was no definition of climate finance for the most vulnerable, apart from the idea that the impasse needs to be resolved. The European Union, for example, has proposed that a special fund be set up to help these nations, provided that it is financed by a "broad base of donors", including emerging countries that emit a lot of gases (such as China).
Themes at COP 27
The program was intense throughout the days, with panels that stimulated debates relevant to the world's population. Some of the themes that guided the panels were:
- Deforestation in Brazilian biomes, especially in the Amazon.
- Sustainable agriculture and the adoption of sustainable practices in agribusiness.
- Food security, especially for the least developed countries.
- The carbon credit market and the guarantee of a greener future.
- Energy transition.
- Impacts of climate change on biodiversity.
- Gender equality and women's participation in climate change adaptation.
- Adaptation and resilience to the transformations brought about by climate change.
President-elect Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva attended the event to reinforce Brazil's interest in actively participating in the climate movement. According to him, "there is no climate security for the world without a protected Amazon. We will spare no effort to bring deforestation and degradation of our biomes to zero by 2030".
He also spoke about the creation of the Ministry of Indigenous Peoples, which will work to protect indigenous communities in Brazil, and took the opportunity to put pressure on more developed countries regarding their commitments to the planet.
COP 30 in Brazil?
In his speech, Lula also commented on his desire to hold COP 30 in Brazil, in the Amazon region. If this is confirmed, we will be able to host the event in 2025:
"I think it's very important that people who defend the Amazon, who defend the climate, get to know what that region is like up close. [It's a way for] people to discuss from a concrete reality, not just through readings."
What is known so far is that the next edition will take place in the United Arab Emirates in 2023. Once again, the host country will be in the Middle East, which is one of the regions most vulnerable to global warming.
As a result, the goal of limiting global warming to 1 .5°C has been confirmed, but several questions remain open about how to achieve this goal more effectively. This figure was set in the Paris Agreement in 2015, when predictions reached 4.5 °C of warming by the end of the century. Despite efforts to reduce estimates and promote decarbonization, greenhouse gas emissions are still considerable and we cannot say that it will be easy to keep warming to 1.5°C.
Is there any doubt that we need to green the planet?
If you enjoyed our summary of COP 27, take the opportunity to find out "Why buy trees and contribute to environmental restoration?". This is our responsibility!